Alternative Specifications
for
Green Residential Building

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

suzanne zuniga AIA

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION, GENERAL NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

DIVISION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
  no sections

DIVISION 2 SITE CONSTRUCTION
  02220 Deconstruction
  02315 Excavation and Fill
  02780 Unit Pavers

DIVISION 3 CONCRETE
  03100 Concrete Formwork
  03300 Cast-In-Place Concrete

DIVISION 4 MASONRY
  04220 Concrete Masonry Units

DIVISION 5 METALS
  05120 Structural Steel
  05210 Steel Joists
  05410 Load Bearing Metal Studs

DIVISION 6 WOOD AND PLASTICS
  06050 Fasteners and Adhesives
  06070 Wood Treatment
  06100 Rough Carpentry
  06150 Wood Decking
  06170 Prefabricated Structural Wood
  06180 Glue Laminated Construction

DIVISION 7 THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION
  07110 Damproofing
  07210 Building Insulation
  07300 Roofing
  07900 Joint Sealers

DIVISION 8 DOORS AND WINDOWS
  08000 Interior Doors
  08000 Exterior Doors
  08360 Overhead Doors
  08500 Windows
  08620 Tubular Skylights

DIVISION 9 FINISHES
  09250 Gypsum Board
  09300 Tile
  09640 Wood Flooring
  09650 Resilient Flooring
  09680 Carpet
  09900 Paint and Coatings

DIVISION 10 SPECIALTIES
  no sections

DIVISION 11 EQUIPMENT
  11200 Rainwater Collection
  11450 Residential Equipment

DIVISION 12 FURNISHINGS
  12300 Manufactured Casework

DIVISION 13 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
  no sections

DIVISION 14 CONVEYING SYSTEMS
  no sections

DIVISION 15 MECHANICAL
  15100 Plumbing
  15500 Heat Generation

DIVISION 16 ELECTRICAL
  no sections

REFERENCES

 


 

INTRODUCTION

The specifications that are contained in this document have evolved from research and architectural practice. I am not a trained spec writer. However, I am publishing these specifications on the web because information must be shared if we are going to achieve a more sustainable built environment. In the spirit of cooperation, I invite other architects, builders, specification writers and homeowners to contribute to this evolving document.

In addition to specifications, I have made every effort to include specific products, materials, and systems that are generally accepted to be more compatible with the natural environment than the industry standards that they are intended to replace. If I have left out a product or material or system, please contact me at Suzanne@zuniga-arch.com.

I have gleaned information from many sources, including books, journal articles, conversations with manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and dealers, and increasingly, off of the web as it became available. Information was confirmed with multiple sources wherever possible.

These specifications are written for designers, homeowners and builders in Oregon, with an emphasis on products that are locally available and, wherever possible, locally or regionally manufactured. Washington sources are also given in acknowledgement of the fact that the largest city in Oregon borders its northern neighbor. Products and categories are chosen on the basis of their location of production.

Most of the products and systems covered have been used in affordable housing projects (both single and multi-family), are generally low-tech and affordable, and/or are similar to the materials and systems they are meant to replace. They are neither unusual nor overly sophisticated- strawbale, composting toilets, and solar technologies are not included. As such, they represent a baseline of ‘green’ that should be considered in every housing project.

There are many sources of general information about ‘green’ building, as well as discussions of the benefits of 'green' building, I have only included information relevant to specifying. Likewise, although I have made recommendations based on in-depth research into the science and chemistry of materials, I have not included much of that discussion here. See the References for key sources.

Lastly, specifications can, at best, only address the environmental impacts of the built environment. They do not guarantee a ‘green’ building, much less a sustainable one. Sustainable design, which integrates environmental and ecological impacts of what we build as well as social, economic and spiritual impacts, is just good design. Sustainable design must become standard building practice if life is to be sustained on earth.

 

GENERAL NOTES

These specifications are written to assist design professionals, builders and homeowners in specifying ‘greener’ products and systems. They are organized in the CSI format and are meant to complement MasterSpec®. The specifications provided are sample specifications. In most cases, only relevant parts of the specifications are included for integration into the full project specifications.

These specifications should be edited carefully to suit the project requirements. Items that are not applicable should be deleted, and additional specifications should be added per the project requirements.

Notes and general information are in black. Sample specification text is in green. Optional items that require selection by the specifier are in blue and bracketed with [].

These specifications are intentionally brief and are written for use on small to medium residential and commercial projects. They are not appropriate for larger or complex projects.

These specifications are Copyrighted to SUZANNE ZUNIGA ARCHITECT LLC and may not be used in whole for any purpose without the author’s permission. They may be used in part for the sole purpose of writing project specifications.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

These specifications were funded by a research grant from the Architectural Foundation of Oregon, administered by the Oregon Community Foundation and published by the City of Portland Office of Sustainable Development.

I wish to acknowledge Larry Strain of Siegel & Strain whose original “reSourceful Specifications”, published in 1998, was the first of its kind; and to Building Green, Inc., publishers of “Environmental Building News”, which I have read religiously since its first publication in 1992. Their original “Product Catalogue”, published in 1998, and now coupled with the “GreenSpec” (current version by Siegel & Strain) is still one of the best sources of information out there.


DISCLAIMER

The author has included specific products, materials and manufacturers in an effort to facilitate the use of alternative products and systems that are more sustainable. The author of these specifications, suzanne zuniga ARCHITECT, LLC, disclaims any warranties, express or implied, relating to these specifications, including but not limited to products, materials, methods, and manufacturers.

The specifier using these specifications accepts any and all responsibility for reviewing product information and construction methods to determine the fitness of products and methods for a particular project.

These specifications were based on the most current information available at the time of authorship. The author makes no guarantees as to the accuracy of the information contained.

suzanne zuniga
suzanne zuniga ARCHITECT llc
301 NE 65th Avenue
Portland, OR 97213
503.408.1405
suzanne@zuniga-arch.com


Alternative Specifications for Green Residential Building Part One

Introduction through Division 7

DIVISION 2 – DECONSTRUCTION

02200 SITE DEMOLITION-DECONSTRUCTION


Items: Specifications should include instructions for salvaging specific items, like equipment, fixtures, appliances, windows and doors, and trim for re-use. Include an inventory of items to be salvaged, instructions for storage, and final destination.

Structures: Specifications should include instructions for the deconstruction of all or portions of a structure or site feature (such as retaining walls, paved areas, and fences) as appropriate. Include an inventory of what is to be salvaged, instructions for material separation (including de-nailing), storage, and final destination.

Materials: Materials that can be salvaged, reused or recycled include: cardboard, clean dimensional wood, beverage containers, land clearing debris, concrete, bricks, CMU, asphalt, drywall, plaster, carpet and pad, rigid foam insulation, asphalt roofing shingles, plastic sheeting, and metals.

Potential sources of metals include: banding, stud trim, ductwork, piping, rebar, roofing, flashing, handrails, connectors, and trim.

Potential uses for materials include:

• Concrete- crush and grade for use as aggregate, rip-rap, sub-base materials, or fill; cut with masonry saw for use as pavers or retaining walls.
• Brick- re-use whole brick; crush for use as landscape cover, sub-base material, or fill.
• Concrete block (CMU)- re-use whole block, crush for use as sub-base material or fill.
• Land clearing wood- chip or shred for use as groundcover, mulch, compost, pulp, or process fuel.
• Asphalt material- sort by type for milling and recycling.
• Wood- sort by type for re-use or remanufacturing.
• Windows and doors- re-use in cold frames, garden sheds, garages, interiors, etc.
• Metal- separate for recycling.
• Gypsum board- pulverize for use as soil amendment or recycle.
• Electrical and plumbing fixtures and hardware- re-use/salvage.
• Appliances- re-use/salvage
• Hardware- re-use/salvage.

Services: The ReBuilding Center (Portland, OR 503.331.1877), a non-profit business in Portland, offers deconstruction services that can be provided instead of demolition or used in tandem with demolition. Specifications should include an inventory of what is to be salvaged, instructions for material separation, storage and final destination. The ReBuilding Center can provide estimates for all or their portion of the work and assist in identifying what is salvageable and the market value of salvaged items

Other contractors with experience providing deconstruction and salvage services include:

• Architectural Recovery, Portland, OR (503) 240.2684
• Aurora Mills Architectural Salvage, Aurora, OR (503) 678.6083
• Hay Loft Enterprises, Hillsboro, OR (360) 254.5873/ (206) 478.2078
• Hippo Hardware, Portland OR (503) 231.1444

Hazardous Materials: Specifications should include instructions for hazardous materials to be tested, removed, separated, stored, and disposed of according to local regulations. Old woodwork with lead paint and siding, floor tiles, and plumbing insulation containing asbestos are very common. Fluorescent light ballasts manufactured prior to 1978 (contain PCB), fluorescent lamps (contain mercury), refrigerants (CFC’s), batteries (contain lead, acid and mercury), paints, solvents and other hazardous fluids may also be regulated.

Resources:

Materials trading websites include:

• Craig’s List: http://www.portland.craigslist.org/ - a non-commercial bulletin board
• DEQ exchange site: http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/solwaste/rrcmatex.html
• Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX) at http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/business/imex/
• NW Materials Mart at http://www.NWMaterialsmart.com
• Reusable Building Materials Exchange http://www.2good2toss.com - for contractors and home remodelers in the Puget Sound area.
• Soiltrader- City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services Not intended for personal use or private residential use. The minimum quantity for bulk trade is 200 yd3. Top soil, soil, mixed soil, gravel, concrete, asphalt, clearing debris, fencing and boulders. http://www.green-rated.org/soiltrader_main.asp

Organizations that accept material donations:

• Bring Recycling, Eugene, OR: http://www.bringrecycling.org/
• Goodwill Industries
• Habitat for Humanity ReStores
• Salvation Army (new (or nearly) carpet, furniture and appliances)
• St. Vincent De Paul
• The ReBuilding Center

Tools/Guides/Lists:

• Metro Construction industry Toolkit: http://www.metro-region.org/article.cfm?ArticleID=727 - a website tool that let’s you enter your site address and check materials you want to recycle- it will list locations of facilities that accept those materials.
• Bring Recycling: http://www.bringrecycling.org/everything_else.html - PDF listing for reuse/recycle by material/item
• Yamhill County Solid Waste: http://www.ycsw.org/index.asp - Resource Guide

Below are partial sample specifications for salvaged items:

Carefully remove existing appliances, light fixtures and plumbing fixtures. Cap off all utility connections as required. All associated parts and hardware to be packaged with the items. Salvaged items to be stored [insert location or per Owner] and/or [reused in locations shown on drawings] donated [by Owner] [by Contractor] to [insert location(s)]

Below are partial sample specifications for salvaged building materials:

Carefully deconstruct [insert portion of structure], taking care not to damage materials. Materials to be salvaged sorted [insert materials, such as wood, metal, gypsum board, etc.] and stored [in containers] [other] for [reuse] [donation to (insert location)] [recycling]. Waste is to be disposed of according to local regulations.

Add as appropriate:
Wood to be de-nailed.
Wood to be free of paint or other finishes.
Plaster to be clean and free of debris.

End of 02200 Site Demolition - Deconstruction
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 2 – SITE CONSTRUCTION

02315 EXCAVATION AND FILL

Specify relocation/reuse of excavated materials on site when possible.

Materials trading websites include:

• Craig’s List: http://www.portland.craigslist.org/- a non-commercial bulletin board
• DEQ exchange site: http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/solwaste/rrcmatex.html
• Industrial Materials Exchange (IMEX) at http://www.govlink.org/hazwaste/business/imex/
• NW Materials Mart at http://www.NWMaterialsmart.com
• Reusable building materials Exchange http://www.rbme.com - for contractors and home remodelers in the Puget Sound area.
• Soiltrader- City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services Not intended for personal use or private residential use. The minimum quantity for bulk trade is 200 yd3. Top soil, soil, mixed soil, gravel, concrete, asphalt, clearing debris, fencing and boulders. http://www.cleanrivers-pdx.org/soiltrader/

Tools/Guides/Lists:

• Metro Construction industry Toolkit: http://www.metro-region.org/article.cfm?ArticleID=727 - a website tool that let’s you enter your site address and check materials you want to recycle- it will list locations of facilities that accept those materials.
• Bring Recycling: http://www.bringrecycling.org/everything_else.html - PDF listing for reuse/recycle by material/item
• Yamhill County Solid Waste: http://www.ycsw.org/index.asp - Resource Guide

Below are partial sample specifications:

General Conditions: Contractor's best efforts shall be used to relocate and reuse excavated materials on the existing site, as opposed to removing them. Contractor shall consult with Owner prior to relocation. If removal is required, contact dirt exchange website by the City of Portland Environmental Services: SOILTRADER @ http://www.green-rated.org/soiltrader_main.asp or call Magaret Nover at 503-823-7623, or Craig’s List at http://www.portland.craigslist.org/.

End of 02315 Excavation and Fill
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 2 – SITEWORK

02780 UNIT PAVERS

Permeable Pavers: Specify permeable pavers- pavers that allow rainwater to permeate between the units. Reducing stormwater that flows off-site reduces the load of stormwater that flows into the Willamette River and other local water systems, which are degraded from the pollutants and erosion that flow in with the water. Since salmon have been listed as Endangered, this is particularly important in our region.

Permeable pavers are specially manufactured to allow more water to permeate. The pavers have small nodes on the sides to create space for water to collect and permeate. There is a local manufacturer of permeable pavers. The cost is about the same as regular concrete pavers. For projects that need to meet specific storm water regulations, they should be designed and specified by a civil engineer, architect or landscape architect with knowledge of stormwater management design.

• UNI Eco-Stone® interlocking concrete porous paver- UNI-Group USA, locally manufactured by Willamette Graystone Inc., in Village, OR.

Pavers: To allow rainwater to permeate, specify individual pavers in lieu of poured concrete, and specify a dry setting base of sand in lieu of mortar. Consider specifying gravel or crushed seashells where a hard paved surface is not necessary.

Specify reclaimed materials for paving. Concrete walks, drives and parking pads can be cut with a mason’s saw and reused as pavers; salvaged bricks and pavers can be cleaned and reused (mortar removal costs about 10¢/brick); Home Depot and other unit paver suppliers will often sell pallets of broken material for a small ($5) fee- it will be discarded otherwise.

Below are partial sample specifications for pedestrian walks or light-duty vehicular traffic.

02780 UNIT PAVERS

Source/manufacturer: [The ReBuilding Center] [Owner to provide] [Insert manufacturer]
Materials:
Pavers: [Salvaged brick] [Cut concrete pavers] [Insert product].
Bedding: Sand ASTM C33, fine aggregate.
Sand for joints: Fine, sharp, washed sand or crushed stone with 100 percent passing the no. 16 sieve and no more than 10 percent passing the No. 200 sieve.
Base: Crushed stone or gravel, ASTM D 448, size No. 8
Edge restraint: [plastic] [poured concrete curb]
Geotextile: Woven or nonwovn polyester or polypropylene, as required.

End of 02780 Unit Pavers
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

 

DIVISION 3– CONCRETE

03100 FORMWORK


Forms: Specify reusable forms, or for wood formwork to be reused. Specify certified sustainably harvested wood for forms if available. Form tubes, such as Sonotubes®, made from recycled paper are quick and easy to use. Recycled plastic and fabric footing forms are also available. Concrete pier foundations require less concrete and excavation than footing and stemwall foundations.

The following forms are widely available in OR and WA, at Masons Supply Company and similar masonry suppliers, lumber dealers, or construction products suppliers. Specifications are available from manufacturers.

Recycled cardboard tube forms:

• SONOTUBES -Sonoco Products.
• Smurfit Concrete Column Forms -Caraustar ICPG Corp.

Recycled cardboard tubes with recycled polyethylene forms:

• Bigfoot System Footing Forms -F & S Manufacturing, Inc.

Fabric footing forms:

• Fastfoot, Fastbag, & Fast-Tube Fabric Forms -Fab-Form Industries Ltd.

Release Agents: Specify Low/No VOC form release agents. The following are available in OR and WA:

• Formshield WB (Tamms) available at Mason Supply (OR and WA), Willamette Graystone (OR), Pumilite Building Products (OR), and Seco supply, (WA).
• Crete-Lease 20 VOC, Cresset Chemical Company. Distributors: Great NW Construction Products, Vancouver, OR and Allied Building Products, Tigard, OR. (503)639.1579.
• Green Plus Form Release Agent, Greenland, Corp. Distributor: Pacific American Commercial Company, Seattle, WA (800) 678.6379/(206)762.3550).
• Soy SOLV Concrete Form Release, Soy SOLV. (800) 231.4274. Distributor: Daniel Smith Inc., Seattle, WA (206) 223-9599).

Below are partial sample specifications:

Materials:
1. Forms: Use reusable forms or re-use form lumber for framing and sheathing whenever possible.
2. Form release agents: shall be guaranteed to provide clean, stain-free concrete release and not interfere with future applied coatings and finishes. Form release agent shall be vegetable-based and without petroleum solvents. Paraffin and waxes shall not be used when a concrete finish is required. Formshield WB (Tamms) available at Mason Supply, Willamette Graystone, and Pumilite Building Products.


Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF’s): ICF’s use less concrete than a typical concrete wall. ICF’s are permanent concrete forms with integral insulation. There are many products available and systems and materials vary per manufacturer. Many, such as Eco-Block, SmartBlock, GreenBlock, and Quad-Lock use EPS forms; some, such as Faswall Wallforms use wood waste and cement forms. Some, such as Pentstar, also called Concrete Form Masonry Units (CFMU), use concrete forms with an insulation insert, and do not require additional finishes. Specify fly ash to be used in the mix for the core, if approved by the manufacturer and Structural Engineer. Be aware of R-value claims by manufacturers: values based on thermal mass will vary per location/climatic conditions. When the insulation is the form, the thermal mass of the concrete is essentially unavailable.

Below is a list of a few of the ICF’s that are currently available. Specifications are available from manufactures. Specify experienced installers and systems that are locally available.

Amazon Grid-Wall ICFs (Amazon Forms LLC)
Arxx High Performance Wall System (Arxx Building Products)
Durisol Wallforms (Durisol Building Systmes)
ECO-Block ICFs (ECO-Block LLC)
Faswall Wallforms (K-X Faswall Corp.)
Greenblock (Greenblock Worldwide Corp)
ICF Block System (ICF Industries, Inc.)
Pentstar Concrete Form Masonry Units (Pentstar Corp.)
Perform Wall Panels (Perform Wall, LLC)
Polysteel Forms (American Polysteel, LLC)
Premier ICFs (Insulfoam/Premier Industries, Inc.)
R-Control ICF System (Advance Foam Plastics, Inc.)
RASTRA® (Rastra)
Reddi-Form (Redi-Form, Inc.)
SAFEBlock (DuraBuild)
Standard ICFs (Standard ICFs)
Tech Block (Tech Block International, LLC)

End of 03100 Formwork
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 3– CONCRETE

03300 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE


Fly Ash: Fly ash can be included in concrete mixes to offset the high embodied energy of concrete. Fly ash is a waste product from coal-fired power plants. In interior heated applications, up to 50% flyash may be used, subject to the requirements of the mix design and approval of the Structural Engineer. In exterior applications and colder weather, maximum of 35%.

• Class F - reduces bleeding and segregation in plastic concrete. In hardened concrete, increases ultimate strength, reduces drying shrinkage and permeability, lowers heat of hydration and reduces creep.
• Class C- provides unique self-hardening characteristics and improves permeability. Especially useful in pre-stressed concrete and other applications where high early strengths are required. Also useful in soil stabilization. Do not use Class C in sufate environments.

For more information and detailed specifications, see these manufacture’s websites:
Boral Material Technologies: http://www.boralmti.com
Holcim (US) Inc.: http://www.holcim.com
ISG Resources, Inc.: http://www.isgresources.com
Lafarge North America: http://www.lafargenorthamerica.com
The SEFA Group: http://www.sefagroup.com
Trans-Ash: http://www.transash.com

Aggregate: Specify reclaimed crushed concrete for aggregate, subject to approval by structural Engineer.

Admixtures: Specify bio-based, Low/No VOC Admixtures for concrete.

• GREENLINE ADMIXTURES , W.R. Meadows, 1(800)342-5976
• SOYSolv Concrete Curing Agent, Daniel Smith Inc. Seattle WA, distributor (206)223.9599

Finishes: Finished concrete slabs eliminate additional finish material. Specify clay or mineral based pigments for coloring, and a wax or sealer.

Reinforcing: Specify reinforcing bars, steel wire, and mesh with maximum recycled content available- 100% is possible.

Specify reinforcement supports with maximum recycled content available- 100% is possible.

Joint Fillers: Specify joint fillers of cork or recycled cellulose.

Below is a partial sample specification for concrete. Admixtures vary per project.

Materials:
Portland Cement: ASTM C150, Type I or II.
Fly Ash: Replace up to 50% of Portland Cement with fly ash by weight: ASTM C618, Type C or F, subject to requirements of mix design and approval of Structural Engineer. Source fly ash as close to concrete supplier as possible. In interior heated applications up to 50% fly ash may be used. In exterior applications and colder weather, maximum 35%. In sulfate environments only Class F fly ash will be permitted and under no circumstances will Class C fly ash be used.
Aggregates: ASTM C33, uniformly graded. Recycled crushed concrete as available and approved by Structural Engineer.
Admixtures: No/low VOC, biobased. Accepted Products: GREENLINE ADMIXTURES, W.R. Meadows, 1(800) 342-5976; SOYSolv Concrete Curing Agent, Daniel Smith Inc., Seattle WA, distributor (206) 223.9599, or approved equal. ASTM C494. Do not use calcium chloride or admixtures containing calcium chloride.
Coloring Admixture: ASTM C494, clay or mineral based pigments. EnvironOxide pigments by Hoover Color Corp/Iron Oxide recovery Inc, Distributor: Pacific coast Chemicals, Co. (503) 241.8241 Portland OR or (206) 223.0006 Seattle WA. Concrete floor wax or sealer: per manufacturer’s recommendations.
Vapor Retarder: Clear 10 mil thick polyethylene sheet.
Moisture Retaining Cover: ASTM C171, polyethylene film or white burlap-polyethylene sheet. Jute fabric and used carpets also acceptable.

Reinforcing Bars: ASTM C150, Type 1, maximum recycled content available, minimum 50%.
Plain Steel Wire: ASTM A82, maximum recycled content available as-drawn.
Mesh: Welded-wire steel fabric, ASTM C33, maximum recycled content available, minimum 50%. If not available, ASTM A185.
Reinforcment supports: 100%recycled plastic content by Eclipse Plastic, Inc., Snohomish, WA (800) 278.4276.
Joint FillerStrips: ASTM D1752, cork or self-expanding cork, or HOMEX 300 by Homasote, Inc.

 

End of 03300 Cast-In-Place Concrete
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

 

DIVISION 4– MASONRY

04220 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

See DIVISION 5, Metals, for steel weld plates, lintels, and shelf angles.
See Section 03100 CONCRETE FORMWORK for Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF’s) and Concrete Form Masonry Units (CFMU’s).

Fly Ash: Fly ash can be included in concrete mixes to offset the high embodied energy of concrete. Fly ash is a waste product from coal-fired power plants. In interior heated applications, up to 50% flyash may be used. In exterior applications and colder weather, maximum of 35% may be used. The amount of fly ash is subject to the requirements of the design mix and should be approved by the Structural Engineer.

• Class F - reduces bleeding and segregation in plastic concrete. In hardened concrete, increases ultimate strength, reduces drying shrinkage and permeability, lowers heat of hydration and reduces creep.
• Class C- provides unique self-hardening characteristics and improves permeability. Especially useful in pre-stressed concrete and other applications where high early strengths are required. Also useful in soil stabilization. Do not use Class C in sufate environments.

For more information and detailed specifications, see these manufacturer’s websites:
Boral Material Technologies: http://www.boralmti.com
Holcim (US) Inc.: http://www.holcim.com
ISG Resources, Inc.: http://www.isgresources.com
Lafarge North America: http://www.lafargenorthamerica.com
The SEFA Group: http://www.sefagroup.com
Trans-Ash: http://www.transash.com

Reinforcing: Specify reinforcing bars, steel wire, and mesh with maximum recycled content available- 100% is possible.

Specify reinforcement supports with maximum recycled content available- 100% is possible.

Below is a partial sample specification for concrete masonry units.

Concrete Block:

General conditions: All unit masonry to be in accordance with the National Concrete Masonry Association. Provide reinforcing as indicated on Structural Drawings and Specifications. See Structural Drawings and specifications for reinforcing. Comply with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
Materials:
Block: Hollow load-bearing 8” x 8” x 16” concrete masonry units, [texture], [color]. ASTM C90 Grade N, Normal Weight.
Grout: Portland Cement, ASTM C476 with a slump of 8 to 11 inches. Include up to 35% fly ash in the mix subject to design mix and approval of Structural Engineer.
Mortar: Comply with ASTM C 270.

Reinforcing Bars: ASTM C150, Type 1, maximum recycled content available, minimum 50%. If not available ASTM A615.
Plain Steel Wire: ASTM A82, maximum recycled content available as-drawn.
Mesh: Welded-wire steel fabric, ASTM C33, maximum recycled content available, minimum 50%. If not available, ASTM A185.
Reinforcement supports: 100%recycled plastic content by Eclipse Plastic, Inc., Snohomish, WA (800) 278.42765.

 

End of 04220 Concrete Masonry Units
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

 

DIVISION 5 – METALS

05120 STRUCTURAL STEEL


Recycled Content: The steel industry averages a 66% recycling rate, although the recycled content of particular products varies greatly. Specify structural steel shapes with the highest recycled content available, minimum 90% (75% post-consumer).

Finish: Specify factory finishing rather than field coating. Factories have more efficient handling of materials and byproducts and better pollution control than individual building sites.

Specify powder coating rather than solvent based coating systems.

Avoid electroplated coatings, especially cadmium and chromium plating materials, cyanide-based electroplating and copper/formaldehyde-based electroless copper solutions. Instead specify noncyanide copper plating, metal stripping, and zinc plating; ion vapor or physical vapor deposition or metal spray coating.

Green seal recommends that anti-corrosive paint contain less than 250 g/l VOCs, less than 1.0 % aromatic compounds by weight.

Below is a partial sample specification:

Materials:
Structural-Steel Shapes, Plates, and Bars: [ASTM A 36/A 36M, carbon steel] [ASTM A 572/A 572M, Grade 50, high-strength, low-alloy columbium-vanadium steel]. Highest recycled content available, minimum 90%.
Cold-Formed Structural-Steel Tubing: ASTM A 500, Grade B, highest recycled content available, minimum 90%.
Steel Pipe: ASTM A 53, Type E or S, Grade B, standard weight (Schedule 40), black finish, highest recycled content available, minimum 90%.
Anchor Rods, Bolts, Nuts: [ASTM A 36/A 36M, unheaded rods] [ASTM A 325 (ASTM A 325M), headed bolts, Type 1, heavy hex steel structural bolts and heavy hex carbon-steel nuts]. Highest recycled content available.

Bolts, Nuts, and Washers: [ASTM A 307, Grade A (ASTM F 568, Property Class 4.6); nonhigh-strength carbon-steel, hex-head bolts; carbon-steel nuts; and flat, unhardened steel washers, uncoated] [ASTM A 325 (ASTM A 325M), Type 1, high-strength heavy hex steel structural bolts, heavy hex carbon-steel nuts, and hardened carbon-steel washers, uncoated]. Highest recycled content available.

Primer: Fast-curing, lead- and chromate-free, rust inhibiting primer with less than 250 g/l VOCs and less than 1.0% aromatic compounds by weight.

 

End of 05120 Structural Steel
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 5 – METALS

05210 STEEL JOISTS

Recycled Content: Specify steel joists, beams and girders with the highest recycled content available. Both of the following are widely available in our region:

• Steel joists and girders by Vulcraft have a minimum of 90% recycled steel. Use typical industry specifications. Closest Vulcraft plant is in Brigham, UT.
• Smartbeam makes 100% recycled steel I beams. They have circular or hexagonal openings, typically span 30-60 feet, and are ideally suited for composite floor beams. Refer to manufacturer’s recommendations and specifications.

Below is a partial sample specification.

General Conditions: Comply with recommendations of SJI “Standard Specifications Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders” and AWS D1.1 “Structural Welding Code-Steel”.
Products:
Joists: Open web steel joists as indicated on Structural Drawings. Manufacture joists according to “Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series” in SJI “Specifications” with steel angle top and bottom chord. Minimum 90% recycled steel content by Vulcraft or Equal. If another manufacturer is chosen, submit data on recycled content.
Bolts, Nuts, and Washers: ASTM A325 , type 1, high-strength heavy hex steel structural bolts, heavy hex carbon-steel nuts, and hardened carbon-steel washers, highest recycled content available, uncoated.
Primer: Fast-curing, lead-and-chromate-free, universal modified-alkyd, rust-inhibiting.

End of 05210 Steel Joists
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 5 – METALS

05410 LOAD BEARING METAL STUDS

Recycled Content: Specify steel studs with the highest recycled content available. Typical studs have 20-25% recycled content, 10-15% post consumer.

Below is a partial sample specification:

Materials:
Steel Studs: C-shaped, with flange width of not less than 1-5/8 inches, minimum uncoated steel thickness of [0.0329 inch] [0.0428 inch] [0.538 inch] [0.0677 inch ] [0.0966 inch], and of depths indicated. Highest recycled content available, minimum 20%.

Steel Track: U-shaped, minimum uncoated metal thickness same as studs used with track, with flange widths of 1-1/4 inches, of web depths indicated. Highest recycled content available, minimum 20%.

 

End of 05410 Load Bearing Metal Studs
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06050 FASTENERS AND ADHESIVES


Nails: Specify high recycled content nails. Maze Nails are 100% recycled steel and readily available, with a hot-dipped galvanized option. Specify stainless steel nails in exposed conditions, such as siding like Hardiplank siding, which cannot be blind nailed.

Adhesives and Sealers: Specify water based, solvent free, No/Low VOC adhesives and sealers. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations and specifications. Below are some Low/No VOC adhesives that are readily available:

• AFM Safecoat 3-in-1 Adhesive (AFM) Available at Environmental Building Supplies, Portland.
• DAP LE 7000 Multipurpose Adhesive and DAP 4000 VOC Compliant Subfloor/Deck Adhesive (DAP) http://www.DAP.com available at T & A Supply Company, Portland.
• Envirotec 2095 (WF Taylor Co.) Available at T & A Supply Company, Portland.
• Speed Grip (Geocel Corporation) http://www.gepcelusa.com multipurpose construction adhesive. Available at home centers and hardware stores.
• Titebond Solvent Free Construction Adhesive (Franklin International) http://www.titebond.com. Available at home centers and hardware stores.

Below are partial sample specifications for nails and adhesives:

Materials:

Nails: Common wire or equivalent diameter and length. 100% recycled steel nails by Maze Nails 1(800)435-5949 or equal. Nails at siding to be [galvanized], [double hot-dipped galvanized], two per stud, per manufacturer. Nails at trim to be [galvanized], [double hot-dipped galvanized].

Construction Adhesives: Water-based, Low/No VOC. Approved products: DAP 4000 VOC Compliant Subfloor/Deck Adhesive (DAP), Speed Grip (Geocel Corp.), Envirotec 2095 (W. F. Taylor Co.), Titebond Solvent Free Construction Adhesive (Franklin International), or 3-in-1 Adhesive (AFM).

End of 06050 Fasteners and Adhesives
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06070 WOOD TREATMENT

Preservatives: The water born preservatives typically used in residential construction include: chromated copper arsenate (CCA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Of these, ACQ is generally regarded as the least toxic. Unlike many materials that emit VOC’s, wood preservatives emit VOCs at a relatively low rate but for a very long time.

Specify pressure treated wood that is not treated with arsenic or chromium. The best alternatives use copper. Copper napthenate (a byproduct of the petroleum refining industry) is considered less toxic but not generally available yet. Do not specify copper treated compounds near bodies of water as it does leach and is toxic to aquatic systems.

With all treated wood, specify that handling precautions be taken to protect workers and the environment, including personal protection and careful management of sawdust. Treated wood should not be in direct contact with aluminum.

Pests: Termites and other wood-eating pests are normally not a problem in the Northwest. If they are, specify a boron-based wood treatment. Borates (a mixture of borax and boric acid), are considered less toxic and provide good protection from fungus and insects, however, they do not fix well and will leach out in exposed conditions.

Below is a partial sample specification for pressure treated wood. See manufacturers’ specifications and instructions for more information.

General Conditions:
Where lumber or plywood is indicated as pressure treated, comply with applicable requirements of AWPA C1 (all products), AWPA C2 (lumber) and AWPA C9 (plywood).
Delivery, Storage, and Handling:
1. Provide waterproof covers for pressure treated wood during shipment.
2. Store pressure treated wood off the ground and protected from weather.
Materials:
Wood products shall be treated with chemicals that do not contain arsenic or chromium.
Lumber: 19% maximum moisture content, grade and species per Structural Drawings.
Plywood: 18% maximum moisture content, panel grade per Structural Drawings.
Acceptable products:
Preserve® ACQ (Alkaline/Copper/Quaternary) pressure injected wood (Chemical Specialties, Inc.). Manufacturers: J.H. Baxter & Co., Eugene, OR (800) 776.9321; Pacific Wood Preserving of Oregon, Sheridan OR, (503) 843.7037; Superior Wood Treating, Sumner, WA (253 863.4495; Coos Head Forest Products, Inc. Coos Bay, OR (541) 751.0088. Retailers: Jerry’s Home Improvement Center, Springfield OR (541) 689.7848, and Eugene, OR (541) 689.1911; Plywood Supply, Kenmore, WA (425) 485.8585. See http://www.treatedwood.com for current distribution information.
a. Above Ground: 0.25 lbs. retention/cu. ft.
b. Ground Contact: 0.40 lbs. retention/cu. ft.
c. Wood Foundations: 0.60 lbs. retention/cu. ft.
d. Pilings: 0.080 to 1.0 lbs. retention/cu.ft.

Wolmanized Natural Select® wood treated with Copper Azole Type B (Arch Wood Protection, Inc.). Call (866) 789-4567 for local dealers or see http://www.wolmanizedwood.com. Available at Parr Lumber, Conrad Forest Products, North Bend, OR (541) 756.2595 and Conrad Forest Products, Ranier, OR (503)556.1953.
Above Ground: 0.20 pcf CBA-A or 0.10 pcf CA-B
Ground or Fresh Water Contact: 0.41 pcf CBA-A or 0.21 pcf CA-B
Sawn Structural Poles: 0.61 pcf CBA-A or 0.31 pcf CA-B

3. NatureWood, preserved with copper/oxide/quaternary compounds. (Osmose Wood Preserving, Inc.) See http://www.osmose.com. -
Installation:
Use hot-dipped galvanized, stainless steel, or other fasteners recommended by hardware manufacturer and approved by code.
Prevent direct contact between treated wood and aluminum building components with minimum 1/4” polyethylene or nylon spacers.
Minimize cutting and avoid breathing sawdust. When sawing or cutting, wear a dust mask and gloves and if using power saws, wear goggles. Vacuum sawdust daily.
Clean up and waste:
Separate treated wood waste from other wood waste and dispose of scraps in accordance with local, state and federal regulations.

End of 06070 Wood Treatment
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06100 ROUGH CARPENTRY

Advanced Framing: Specify Advanced Framing Techniques, also called Efficient Framing or Optimum Value Engineering (OVE), with studs on 24” centers.

Salvaged/Reclaimed Wood: Specify salvaged or reclaimed wood if there is a source that has been re-graded (some dealers offer re-graded wood). If it has not been re-graded, a quantity of about 10,000 board feet or more begins to make hiring a qualified wood grader cost effective.

Oregon Graders:

• The ReBuilding Center, Portland, OR (503) 331.1877
•West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau, Portland, OR (503) 639.0651.
• Western Wood Products Association, Portland, OR (503)224.3930.
West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau will grade lumber as far south as San Francisco. Approximate cost: 1/2 day (about 10,000 bf) $150-300; full day (about 20,000 bf) $300-500 (2003).

Local Reclaimed Wood Dealers:

• The ReBuilding Center, Portland, OR (503) 331.1877
• Columbia International Trading Co., Portland, OR (888) 326.3577
• Craftmark Reclaimed Wood, McMinnville, OR (503) 472.6929
• McGee Salvage, Portland, OR (503) 720.7308, (503)740.9336
• Canon Structures, Inc., Trestlewood Division, Provo, UT (801) 375.2779 Portland location planned in the future.
• Environmental Home Center, Seattle, WA (800) 281.9785
• J Squared Timberworks, Seattle, WA (206) 781.3000
• Resource Woodworks, Tacoma WA (253) 474.3757
• R.W. Rhine Inc., Tacoma WA (800) 963.8270

Certified Wood: Specify sustainably harvested wood certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Prices are usually very competitive with non-certified wood. For example, certified dry lumber from Environmental Building Supply is 51 cents/ft and non-certified dry lumber from Parr lumber is 50 cents/ft (2003). In a typical project, using Advanced Framing Techniques will save enough money to buy certified wood and then some.

Local Certified wood suppliers:

• Cascadia Forest Goods, Eugene, OR (541) 485.4477
• Collins Companies, Portland, OR (503) 417.7755
• Crosscut hardwoods, Portland, OR (503) 224.9663
• Edensaw Woods, LTD., Seattle WA (877) 333.6729, and Port Townsend, WA (800) 745.3336.
• Endura Hardwoods, Portland, OR (503) 233.7090 and Bend (503) 383.5003
• Environmental Building Supply, Portland, OR (503) 222.3881
• Parr Lumber, many locations in OR
• Coming to Home Depot!

Below is a partial sample specification:

General Conditions: See Structural Drawings. Use Advanced Framing Techniques developed by the National Association of Home Builders. Comply with the structural loading requirements and Advanced Framing Requirements (1307.1.4) of the current adopted UBC, Oregon Structural Specialty Code and Structural Engineer. Features include:

• 2x6 studs at 24” oc for exterior walls.
• Frame corners with 2 studs: use drywall clips or 1x blocking for backing
• Align studs and joists/rafters/trusses where possible and use single top plates.
• Use built-up headers instead of solid lumber, and size headers for actual loads.
• Eliminate or reduce headers at non-load bearing walls
• Use pre-cut studs and joists.
• Use cut off ends for blocking.
• Ladder block (or ladder frame) interior partitions to exterior walls.

In addition:

• Coordinate framing stages with lumber supply to ensure a minimum of waste.
• Wherever possible, align studs at openings.
• Coordinate framing with plumbing to provide adequate space for plumbing without compromising structural integrity and to avoid furring out/down.
• Coordinate stud spacing to accommodate plumbing fixtures.

Quality Assurance: For framing lumber, provide evidence of compliance with standards endorsed by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).
Materials:
Framing lumber: Certified Douglas Fir, with maximum moisture content of 19% at the time of fabrication, available at The Collins Pine Co., Portland, (503)227.1219, Crosscut Hardwoods, Portland (503)224.9663 and Endura Hardwoods, Portland (503)233.7090. Grade per Structural Engineer. Grade or species may be substituted subject to approval by the Structural Engineer.

End of 06100 Rough Carpentry
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06150 WOOD DECKING

Species: The use of only a few wood species of the hundreds of species worldwide puts unbalanced pressure on forests. Specify wood species that are local, lesser known, and have a natural resistance to decay such as ironwood, black locust, and black walnut. Do not specify endangered or old-growth species. If local species are not available, specify certified sustainably harvested decay resistant species from South America such as Ipe, Cuchi and Pau Lope. Specify redwood and cedar only if they are certified.

Local certified decking suppliers in OR and WA:

• Parr Lumber, many locations in OR
• Environmental Building Supply, Portland, OR (503) 222.3881
• Collins Companies, Portland (503) 417.7755
• Crosscut hardwoods, Portland, (503) 224.9663
• Disdero Lumber Co. (503)239.8888- Iron Woods; serving OR
• Endura Hardwoods, Portland (503) 233.7090 and Bend (503) 383.5003
• Cascadia Forest Goods, Eugene (541) 485.4477
• Edensaw Woods, LTD., Seattle WA (877)333.6729, and Port Townsend (800) 745.3336
• Randall Custom Lumber, Ltd., Shelton, WA (360) 426.8528
• Specialty Forest Products, (253) 939.8855- Iron Woods; serving WA
• Coming to Home Depot!

Plastic/Composite Lumber: Specify plastic lumber or composite wood/plastic lumber for decking. Plastic lumber is durable, weather resistant, low maintenance, and is recycled and recyclable. It is typically made from 100% recycled plastic or a combination of plastic and cellulose. One manufacturer in Texas also uses recycled rubber. One hundred percent recycled plastic lumber may not perform well in lengths over 6 feet or where shear is a significant consideration, such as fencing and decking. For theses uses, specify plastic/cellulose composite lumber because the cellulose fiber improves stability and holds screws better. Some products are warranted for as long as 50 years. On the web, prices range from $2.15- $3.50 LF.

Local plastic lumber/composite suppliers:

• TREX, TREX Company, MA. Available at Parr Lumber, Milwaukie Lumber, Lumbermen’s, Keith Brown Lumber, Hubbards Ace, and other lumber and building supply stores.
• Recycled Plastics Marketing, Inc., Redmond, WA (800) 867.3201 http://www.rrpm.com. Order online or by phone.
• The Plastic Lumber Company. Closest plant is in Murrieta, CA (800) 866.8990 http://www.plasticlumber.com. Order by phone or online.
• Carefree Xteriors HDPE and Structural, US Plastic Lumber. Closest plant for decking is in Denver, CO. Available at lumber and building supply stores.

Pressure treated wood is not recommended for decking. See section 06300 Treated Wood.

Below is a partial sample specification. See manufacturer’s printed specifications:

General Requirements: ASTM D 6108, D6109, D6111, D6112, D6118.
Delivery, Storage and Handling: Store plastic lumber on a flat surface, protected from weather, in original packaging.
Manufacturer: TREX, TREX Company; Recycled Plastics Marketing, Inc., (800) 867.3201 http://www.rrpm.com (order by phone or online); The Plastic Lumber Company (800) 866.8990 http://www.plasticlumber.com, (order by phone or online); Carefree Xteriors, US Plastic lumber.
Materials: Plastic lumber decking.
Fasteners: [Hot-dipped Galvanized] [Stainless Steel] per manufacturer’s written specifications and instructions.
Warranty: Provide manufacturer’s warranty for a minimum of 10 years.
Submittals: Manufacturer’s product information, specifications, and installation instructions.

End of 06150 Wood Decking
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06170 PREFABRICATED STRUCTURAL WOOD

Specify prefabricated structural wood, such as trusses, joists, and laminated wood beams, in lieu of solid wood. These products use wood more efficiently (smaller pieces of wood, smaller, fast-growing trees, and scrap wood) and are stronger and more dimensionally stable than solid wood. They are cost effective and readily available.

Steel-web Wood Joists: Open web joists have the added advantage of eliminating drilling in the webs for running plumbing and mechanical lines. Below is the closest manufacturer:

• Trus Joist-Weyerhaeuser, Boise ID (plants in Eugene and Hillsboro)

Engineered Lumber/Structural Glue-Laminated Timber: Most engineered lumber products are made with phenol-formaldehyde binders, which emit less formaldehyde than urea-formaldehyde. There are a few products made without formaldehyde binders. There is also one that is FSC certified.

• Standard Structures, Inc., Santa Rosa CA- FSC certified glulams, I-joists, and open web trusses. Phenol formaldehyde binders.
• Trus Joist-Weyerhaeuser, Biose ID (plants in Eugene and Hillsboro)
New TJI’s with Timberstrand® flange- see below
LSL’s- formaldehyde free binder; more efficient wood use than the typical LVL.
• Willamette industries Engineered Wood Products, Saginaw, OR (Trus Joist family of products; 2 plants in OR).
StrucJoist- I-joists for residential
I-Joist- for commercial
StrucLam LVL
Glulam beams
• Rosoboro Lumber Co., Springfield, OR.
• Redi-Lam II beam- Combined glu-lam on top with and LVL on bottom; Lighter, less expensive, and as strong as typical LVL.

Insulated Veneer Headers: Headers made of foam insulation sandwiched between wood veneers use wood efficiently and provide better thermal insulation. The EPS foam cores are non-ozone-depleting.

• Premier Building Systems, Fife, WA – Insul-Beam. EPS foam insulation with some recycled content. 2x4, 2x6, 2x8.
• Superior Wood Systems, Superior, WI- SWII Headers. Solid wood top and bottom chords with OSB web with EPS foam core. R-18.

Below is a partial sample specification. See manufacturer’s specifications:

Structural Glue-Laminated Timber:
General Requirements: Comply with ANSI/AITC A 190.1, "Structural Glued Laminated Timber." Structural Performance: Provide structural glulam timber capable of withstanding design loads indicated according to AITC 117-DESIGN or as determined according to ASTM D 3737.
Manufacturer: [Trus Joist-Weyerhaeuser] [Standard Structures, Inc.]
Materials: [Glulams] [I-joists] [LVLs] [PSLs] in sizes and types shown on drawings. [FSC certified].
Submittals:
1. Product Data including specifications and installation instructions.
2. Shop Drawings showing full dimensions of each member.
3. Structural Analysis Data and Calculations signed and sealed by a qualified professional engineer in Oregon.
[4. FSC certification]

End of 06170 Prefab. Structural Wood
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 6 – WOOD AND PLASTICS

06180 GLUE LAMINATED CONSTRUCTION

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s): Phenol formaldehyde glues emit lower amounts of VOC’s than urea-formaldehyde glues. Specify urea-formaldehyde free glues in glue laminated construction. Specify exterior grade plywood instead of interior grade. Or, specify a painted or laminate sealer on all exposed sides.

Wood Products made without urea-formaldehyde:

• Medex (exterior) and Medite II (interior) MDF, SierraPine LTD.
• Resincore-I Particleboard, Rodman Industries
• AdvanTech OSB, J.M. Huber Wood Products
• AllGreen MDF, CanFibre, Kafus Industries- made with phenol Formaldehyde resin (tested emissions are no higher than natural wood) and 100% post consumer wood. Plant is in Riverside, CA. Available at Home Depot.

Sealer for off-gassing:

• Safecoat Safe Seal, American Formulating Manufacturing (AFM)

Certified, Recycled Content, and Alteratives to Wood: Specify sustainably harvested certified wood products, or wood products that have recycled/recovered content or are from alternative (non-wood) sources. Coordinate sheathing with structural requirements.

Certified Wood products:

• FSC-Certified MDF, Temple-Inland Forest Products Corp.
• Certified Particleboard, Collins Products, LLC.
• Tuff-Strand Certified OSB, ROMEX World Trade Company, LLC
• Certified Pine Plywood, ROMEX World Trade Company, LLC

Alternative (agricultural waste) and recycled wood products:

• WoodStalk, Dow BioProducts- straw, formaldehyde free
• Parkland Panels, Panel Source International- wheat straw, formaldehyde free
• Primeboard, Primeboard, Inc.- wheat straw, formaldehyde free
• MeadowBoard, Meadowood Industries- Ryegrass stems
• WheatBoard- Wheat straw, formaldehyde free; available at Environmental Building Supplies.
• OSB- small diameter/low grade trees
• Particleboard and MDF, Weyerhaeuser- SCS certified 100% recycled/ recovered
• Resincore-I Particleboard, Rodman Industries- Some recycled content

See also Section 12300, Manufactured Casework.

Below is a partial sample specification:

Materials:
Interior: All MDF, plywood, strandboard, or other manufactured wood products used in the interior space of this project shall be made without urea-formaldehyde glues. Phenol-formaldehyde glues (used in exterior grade boards) are acceptable. Acceptable products:

• Medex (exterior) and Medite II (interior) MDF, Sierra Pine LTD.
• Resincore-I Particleboard, Rodman Industries
• AdvanTech OSB, J.M. Huber Wood Products
• WoodStalk, Dow BioProducts
• Parkland Panels, Panel Source International
• Primeboard, Primeboard, Inc.
• Isoboard (strawboard), Isoboard Enterprises (503) 242.7345.

Products made with urea-formaldehyde glue may be used so long as they are completely sealed with a material with a vapor permeability of 1 perm or less, such as plastic laminate or Safecoat Safe Seal, American Formulating Manufacturing (AFM).

Exterior: sheathing products used on the exterior of this project shall be FSC-Certified. See schedule on Structural drawings for sizes and specifications. Acceptable Products:

• Tuff-Strand Certified OSB, ROMEX World Trade Company, LLC

End of 06180 Glue Laminated Construction
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

 

DIVISION 7 – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

07110 DAMPROOFING


Specify Low VOC dampproofing.

Low VOC Dampproofing:

• Dynoseal, American Formulating & Manufacturing (AFM)

Available at:

• Environmental Building Supplies, Portland, OR (503) 222.3881
• Environmental Building Supplies, Bend, OR (541) 317.0202
• The Environmental Home Center, Seattle, WA (800) 281.9785
• Healthy Environments, Seattle, WA (800) 511.7732

Below is a partial sample specification. See manufacturer’s specifications and installation instructions:

Materials: Dynoseal by AFM , available at Environmental Building Supplies, Portland OR (503)222.3881, and Bend OR (541)317. 0202; The Environmental Home Center , Seattle, WA (800)281.9785; Healthy Environments, Seattle WA (800)511.7732.
Installation: Per manufacturer’s instructions. Apply from finished grade to top of footing. Extend over top of footing and down a minimum of 6 inches over outside face of footing.

 

End of 07110 Damproofing
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 7 – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

07210 BUILDING INSULATION

There are many options for insulation. Specify R-values above code. Specify insulation with recycled content. Because airborne fiberglass is a known health risk, consider specifying an alternative that meets the needs of the project, or specify formaldehyde-free, encapsulated or twisted fiber batts. The Willamette valley has a climate that changes the thermal dynamics of a building wall seasonally- the warm and cold side flip. Consider a breathable vapor barrier, such as Kraft Paper, as a backing. Specify foil-backed insulation for a radiant barrier IF there is an air space in front of the foil. Specify foam and sprayed-on insulations that are HCFC-free. When there are many options, specify products that are manufactured locally.

Cellulose Insulation: A good alternative to fiberglass since it is cost competitive, has a higher recycled content, packs tighter than batts, takes 10 times less energy to produce, has superior sound properties, and is non-toxic. The cellulose industry averages 75% recycled content. It is widely available and properties vary per manufacturer. Wet sprayed cellulose is more expensive than loose fill but can have an added binder to prevent settling. Most cellulose is made from recycled newsprint, the inks of which may off gas at levels detectable to very sensitive people. If the user is very chemically sensitive, specify cellulose that is made from cardboard. The closest manufacturer of cellulose insulation is in Spokane:

Cellulose Insulation (Spray-on and Loose fill) in OR and WA:

• Thermoguard Co., Spokane, WA (800) 541.0579. Wholesalers are scattered throughout the NW; Insulation Supply, Vancouver WA (800) 328.7177 or Medford (800) 496.0278.
Isolite- spray on
Thermolite- loose fill
Isopro- spray on
• US GreenFiber, (800) 228.0024 http://www.greenstone.com. The Portland plant was closed. The closest plant is in Sacramento, CA. For existing construction or closed in walls, it is available at Home Depot, Lowes and lumber supply stores. For new construction, a trained contractor is required: Richart Building, Vancouver, WA (360) 574.5859; Insultech, Steilacom, WA (253) 984.0598.
Cocoon®- loose fill; excellent sound ratings for multi-family construction

Cotton Insulation: A good alternative to fiberglass since it has a higher recycled content, is formaldehyde-free, fibers are non-irritating and non-toxic, and emissions are very low. Costs more than fiberglass batts ($.56-.78/sq.ft.), but the reduced health risks are well worth it.

Cotton Batt Insulation in OR and WA:

• UltraTouch Natural Fiber Insulation, Bonded Logic, Inc. (480) 627.2655 http://www.bondedlogic.com- Batts, 85% post-industrial recycled cotton/15% plastic fiber and borate treatments. Manufactured in Arizona.
Available at:
• Environmental Building Supplies, Portland OR (503) 222.3881
• Environmental Building Supplies, Bend OR (541) 317.0202
• Environmental Home Center, Seattle, WA (800) 281.9785
• Nature’s Home & Building, Klammath Falls, OR (541) 356.2302

Innotherm (866) 627.2655 http://www.innotherm.com also makes Home Insulation, a cotton insulation, but it is not available in the northwest.

Glass Fiber Insulation: Fiberglass batts are typically the least expensive insulation product, although cellulose can be competitive. Airborne glass fibers are a skin and respiratory irritant and are listed as a carcinogen. The EPA classifies fiberglass as a “probable” carcinogen. Specify encapsulated batts or twisted fiberglass (Miraflex). Note, however, that cutting batts to fit into nonstandard bays defeats both twisting and encapsulating. Always specify that installers of fiberglass batts use protective clothing and respirators, and that cavities be well sealed. Specify formaldehyde-free fiber glass insulation, GREENGUARD Certified (low emissions) insulation, and/or No VOC insulation. Specify the highest recycled content available. The fiberglass industry averages 35% recycled content, but 80% is possible. Blown in/loose fill glass fiber insulation is not recommended. Wet spray-on glass fiber is acceptable, but must be applied by a certified installer.

Fiber Glass Batt Insulation in OR and WA:

• Building Insulation, Knauf Insulation, (800) 825.4434 http://www.KnaufUSA.com (batts, blankets, board and blowing insulation certified)
• Certainteed, (800) 233.8990 http://www.certainteed.com
Building Insulation – 20% recycled content fiberglass, GREENGUARD certified;
InsulSafeIII®- 20 % recycled content fiberglass, formaldehyde-free, GREENGUARD certified;
Widely available at building construction products stores.
• Johns Manville Corporation, (800) 654.3103 http://www.jm.com
Residential insulation products- Certified for 25% recycled content fiberglass, entire line now formaldehyde-free;
ComfortTherm- encapsulated (plastic wrapped);
Widely available at building construction products stores.
• Owens Corning, (800) 438.7465 http://www.owenscorning.com
PINK Fiberglass Building Insulation – Certified to contain at least 30% recycled content;
Miraflex® - formaldehyde-free, no chemical binders, twisted (fibers cannot become airborne unless batts are cut);
Widely available at building construction products stores.
• Ottawa Fibre, Inc. (613) 736.1215 http://www.ofigroup.com
Golden Glow- 80% recycled glass
Available at:
Kanez Building Materials Co., Clackamas, OR (503) 620.6142
GTS Drywall Supply, Kirkland, WA (425) 828.6761
GTS Drywall Supply, Bellingham, WA (360) 527.1570
GTS Drywall Supply- other locations in WA

Sprayed-On Glass Fiber Insulation in OR and WA

• Monoglass, Inc. (888) 777.2966 http://www.monoglass.com
Monoglass Spray-On insulation- glass fiber, wet sprayed, formaldehyde-free, 37% recycled content, water-based non-toxic adhesives. Requires licensed installers. Installed cost starts at $.40/sq ft @ 1” thick.
Oregon/Washington installers:
Harver Company, Lake Oswego, OR (503) 624.1453
Insulation Contracting Co., Portland, OR (503) 236.2532
Insulation Contractors of Oregon Inc., Portland, OR (503) 261.9395
Insulpro Specialties Inc., Willsonville, OR (503) 582.9292
Insulpro Projects Inc., Fife, WA (253) 896.4944
Insulation Contractors Inc., Kent, WA, (253) 395.1895
Carrig & Dancer Enterprises, Inc., Tumwater, WA (206) 584.7704

Mineral Wool Insulation: Mineral wool insulation made of basalt rock (25% or less) and steel slag (over 75%) Thus it has a high recycled content (post-industrial)- some plants use almost 100% slag. It has better sound ratings and R ratings than cellulose and fiber insulation products. It is the only insulation that will stop fire. It is classified as a “possible” carcinogen by the International Agency for research on cancer (IARC). It is heavier than fiberglass and less likely to become airborne. It is widely available and comparable to cellulose in cost. It is manufactured in Texas, Washington, North Carolina, and Indiana.

Mineral Wool Insulation in OR and WA:

• Thermafiber, (800) 294.7076 http://www.thermafiber.com (American Rockwool Inc.-Manufactured and distributed from Tacoma, WA)
Blowing Wool
Sidewall Spray
Foundation Wall Spray
Available in Oregon and Washington, contact: Jan at: jmelton@thermafiber.com

Rockwool Insulation: Rockwool is a synthetic mineral wool fiber similar to glasswool, or fiber glass. It is made from coke, diabase, and limestone and sometimes basalt and olivine. It is not recommended since large amounts of phenol, ammonia, formaldehyde, and dust are released during production and large amounts of waste are produced. It is classified as a “possible” carcinogen by the International Agency for research on cancer (IARC).

Foam Board Insulation: Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is not blown using HCFC’s and typically has some recycled content. Extruded polystyrene XPS is still blown with HCFC’s, except for one product by Dow Chemical Company. Polyisocyanurate insulation is now (as of 2003 in the US) blown without HCFC’s and typically includes some recycled/reclaimed content. Polyiso has superior R-values over EPS, but EPS is produced in our region.

EPS (Expanded polystyrene) Insulation: Manufacturers with local (regional) plants:

• Insulfoam, Division of Premier industries, Inc., Tacoma, WA (800) 248.5995 http://www.insulfoam.com; Typically 15% recycled content.
R-TECH: roof, wall, perimeter, insulation
Insultaper Tapered Roof Drainage System- for low-slope roofs
Insul-Lam and Insul-Vent- nailable deck panels
• Advance Foam Plastics, Inc.- Nevada Division- licensed manufacturer of AFM Corporation’s Perform® EPS Insulation
Perform® Insulation- EPS insulation
Perform Guard® - EPS insulation w/ boron insect repellent
Contour Taper Tile®- EPS shaped to pitch low-slope roofs

Polyisocyanurate Foam Insulation:

• Atlas Roofing Corporation (770) 952.1442 http://www.AtlasRoofing.com- First in N. America to be blown without HCFCs. Closest commercial plants are in Colorado and Arizona; closest residential product plant is in Oklahoma. Distributors/retailers are throughout the Pacific Northwest at building and roofing supply companies such as ABS Supply Company and Allied Building Products Corporation.
Residential- Energy Shield and R-Board
Commercial- ACFoam line- Up to 25% recovered materials

XPS (Extruded Polystyrene) Foam Board:
Styrofoam® High Performance Underlayment, Dow Chemical Co., Styrofoam Brand Products, MI (800) 441.4369 http://www.styrofoam.com-
Only XPS in Us blown without HCFCs.

Polyurethane Foamed-in-Place Insulation: Specify open-cell polyurethane foams produced with water or CO2 as the blowing agent; they are blown without HCFCs and use less material than closed-cell. Polyurethane foamed-in-place insulations have a good R-value and provide an excellent seal when that is required, however, they are hazardous during installation and not produced locally. Specify them in small quantities where the superior sealing properties are required.

Polyurethane Foamed-in-Place Insulation:

• Sealection 500, Demiltec USA, Inc. TX (877) 633.2000 http://www.sealection500.com
• Supergreen Foam, Foam-Tech, Division of Building Envelope Solutions, inc. VT (802) 333.4333 http://www.foam-tech.com
• HealthySeal 500, HealthySeal, SC (800) 769.3626 http://www.healthyseal.com
• RTC Polyurethane insulation, Resin Technology Division of Henry Co., Canada, (800) 729.0795

Cementitious Foam Insulation is available in one product: Air-Krete. It is fire proof, insect proof, and non-toxic. It is considered the most benign from an indoor air quality standpoint. It must be installed by trained installers. It is relatively expensive. It is not available in our region.

Wool Insulation: Wool insulation is sold in the UK, Germany, New Zealand, and Canada. Unfortunately, the Canadian company, Good Shepherd Wool Insulation, has not been certified or approved by any building authority.

Cork insulation: Cork is a natural insulator, and is sustainably harvested, but more than half the world’s cork is harvested in Portugal. It is used in other countries, such as the Netherlands, but in the US only gaskets are available, and they are fabricated on the east coast.

Below is a partial sample specification. Specifier should include a schedule of insulation products, locations, and R-values required (not shown below). See manufacturer’s websites or representatives for information on suitable applications for each type of insulation.

07210 BUILDING INSULATION

General Conditions: Surface-Burning Characteristics: ASTM E84.
Products:
1. Board:
a. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Board Insulation: ASTM C578, with flame-spread index of 75 or less. Maximum recycled content available. R-TECH by Insulfoam, Division of Premier industries, Inc., Tacoma, WA (800) 248.5995 http://www.insulfoam.com.
b. Polyisocyanurate Board Insulation: ASTM C1289, with a flame-spread index of 75 or less. Energy Shield and R-Board by Atlas Roofing Corporation (770) 952.1442 http://www.AtlasRoofing.com.
2. Batts/Blankets: ASTM C665, flame spread index of 25 or less [Type I, unfaced] [Type III, Class A, foil-scrim-kraft, foil-scrim, or foil-scrim-polyethylene vapor-retarder membrane on one face]
a. Fiberglass: Encapsulated or twisted fiber, formaldehyde free, minimum 25% recycled content. Miraflex® by Owens-Corning or ComforTherm® by Johns Manville Corporation.
b. Mineral/Rock Wool: Thermafiber (800) 294.7076 http://www.thermafiber.com. contact: JAN at: jmelton@thermafiber.com.
c. Cotton: UltraTouch Natural Fiber Insulation, Bonded Logic, Inc. (480) 627.2655 http://www.bondedlogic.com. Available at: Environmental Building Supplies, Portland OR (503) 222.3881.
3. Cellulose Loose-Fill Insulation: ASTM C739, minimum 75% recycled content, treated with borates. Thermolite insulation by Thermoguard Co., Spokane, WA (800) 541.0579 or Cocoon® by U.S. Greenfiber, LLC, (800) 228.0024 http://www.greenstone.com, available at Home Depot.
4. Cellulose Self- Supported, Spray-Applied: ASTM C1149, wood-based cellulose fiber, Type II, applied with dry adhesive activated by water during installation; chemically treated for flame-resistance, processing, and handling characteristics. Isolite and Isopro insulation by Thermoguard Co., Spokane, WA (800) 541.0579.
Installation:
1. Install insulation in areas and in thicknesses indicated or required to produce R-values indicated. Cut and fit batts and boards tightly around obstructions and fill voids with insulation.
2. Place loose-fill insulation to comply with ASTM C 1015. Comply with the Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association's Special Report #3, "Standard Practice for Installing Cellulose Insulation."
3. Extend vapor retarder to extremities of areas to be protected from vapor transmission. Secure in place with adhesives or other anchorage. Locate seams at framing members, overlap, and seal with tape.
4. Installers protection:
a. Fiberglass batts/blankets: protective clothing and respirators
b. Mineral/Rock wool: mask
c. Blown-in cellulose: mask
d. Spray-applied: as recommended by manufacturer
5. Avoid cutting fiberglass batts. Do not compress batts of any fiber.
Submittals: Product data

 

End of 07210 Building Insulation
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 7 – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

07300 ROOFING

Asphalt composition shingles are most common because of the low first cost, however, they are petroleum based, less durable and not recycleable. If asphalt is specified, specify the most durable product (at least 40 years). Standard specifications for asphalt roofing are adequate.

Specify Algae Block®, an algae-inhibiting product that incorporates copper in the granules, if algae staining is an aesthetic concern. While dark algae streaks may cause the roof to absorb more heat from the sun (if the roof is light colored), there are no proven damaging effects.

There is one manufacturer of asphalt roofing, a corrugated sheet roofing, that contains 50% recycled cellulose. It is on the east coast, so the distance should be considered carefully:

Asphalt Roofing with recycled content:

• Ondura, Tallant Industries, Inc., Fredericksburg, VA (800) 777.7663 http://www.ondura.com - corrugated asphalt roofing made from 50% asphalt and 50% recycled cellulose fiber.

Metal Roofing contains a high recycled content, is very durable, and is easily recycled. It is also the best choice for rainwater collection. Standard specifications for shingles or sheet are adequate. Specify flashings, drip edges, and other metals in contact with the metal roof to be of the same material. Specify a galvanized finish or a baked enamel over the galvanized finish. Specify stainless steel fasteners.

Wood shingles and shakes are a fire concern in dry areas, and are typically sourced from old growth western red cedar. If specified, specify shingles that are certified, if available, or at least that they are not old growth.

Underlament: Specify 30 lb felt. Due to availability, it is often the same or less expensive than 15 lb.

Consider putting the roof to work by specifying a solar hot water system, photovoltaics, rainwater collection, or a green roof.

End of 07300 Roofing
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga


 

DIVISION 7 – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

07900 JOINT SEALERS

Joint Sealers: Specify Low VOC joint sealers, and/or gasket-type sealers.

Low/No VOC joint sealers:

• AFM Enterprises, Inc. , Safecoat® natural based caulks, putties, and sealers
• Auro-Sinan Co. natural based caulks, putties, and sealers

Expanding Foam Joint Sealers: Specify expanding foam joint sealers that are not blown with CFCs or HCFCs.

Joint sealants blown without HCFCs or CFCs:

• Convenience Products (800) 325.6180 http://www.convenienceproducts.com
Touch’n Seal line –for contractors; formaldehyde free
Touch’n Foam line – for consumers; formaldehyde and solvent free
• Hilti, Inc. (800) 879.8000 http://www.us.hilti.com
CF-128 (single component polyurethane) sold directly by Hilti:
Hilti Center, Portland (800) 879.8000
Hitli Cneter Seattle, WA (800) 879.8000
Hilti Pro Shop, Tacoma WA (253)474.9600
• Illbruck Sealant Systems, Inc. (800) 438.0684 http://www.illbruck.com
1. 1- Component Foam (single component polyurethane)
• Instafoam, Flexible Products Co. (800) 800.3626 http://greatstuff.dow.com/index.htm
InstaSeal EcoBlend- for contractors; low and full expanding
Foam Plus- for consumers; full expanding
Great Stuff- for consumers; low expanding
• Todol Products (508) 651.3818 http://www.todol.com
Pur Fill IG
Pur Fill IG600 (smaller size)

Concrete and Masonry Joint Fillers: Specify recycled content joint fillers for concrete and masonry:

Recycled content joint fillers for concrete and masonry:

• Homasote Co. (800) 257.9491 http://www.homasote.com
Homex 300- resilient expansion joint filler; recycled newsprint; no urea formaldehyde or asbestos. Less expensive than asphalt impregnated felt.

Cork joint fillers: Cork is a renewable resource and is less expensive than asphalt impregnated felt. However, more than half of the world’s cork is harvested in Portugal, so check the source.

• W.R. Meadows (800) 342.5976 http://www.wrmeadows.com
Sealtight self-expanding cork expansion joint filler.

Below are partial sample specifications. See manufacturers’ specifications and instructions:

Scope of Work: Seal penetration between interior space and exterior, including all penetrations for ducting, wiring, plumbing, lights, and fans, and at all windows and doors.
General Requirements: Provide joint sealants, joint fillers, and other related materials that are compatible with one another and with joint substrates under service and application conditions. Do not proceed with installation of joint sealants when ambient and substrate temperature conditions are outside limits permitted by joint sealant manufacturer or are below 40 F. All sealants to have a clean finish appearance. In fire-rated walls, caulk spaces around utility penetrations through walls with ASTM E-814 or UL 1479 rated foam fire-rated sealant.
Materials:
1. Exterior General Use:
Silicon: one-part silicon sealant, VOC content: maximum 15 grams/liter.
Acrylic/silicon: water based sealant, VOC content: 31 grams/liter
2. Exterior Concealed Joints and Under Thresholds: One-part butyl rubber caulk conforming to FS TT-S-001657, Type I.
3. Interior Horizontal Joints subject to Pedestrian Traffic:
Two-part polyurethane conforming to ASTM C920, Class 25, Type M; self-leveling, zero-VOC.
One-part polyurethane, VOC content: maximum 45 grams/liter.
4. Interior Non-wet Areas: One-component acrylic latex water-based sealant conforming to ASTM C834, VOC content: maximum 42 grams/liter
5. Interior Wet Areas: One-part, mildew-resistant silicone rubber conforming to ASTM C920, Type S, Class 25, Grade NS
6. Sealant Backer Rod: Compressible rod-stock polyethylene foam, polyethylene-jacketed polyurethane foam, butyl-rubber foam, neoprene foam, or other flexible, permanent, durable, nonabsorptive material as recommended for compatibility with sealant by sealant manufacturer.
7. Joint Cleaner, Primer, and Bond Breaker: As recommended by sealant manufacturer
8. Fiber Expansion Joint Material: Preformed cellular fiber complying with ASTM D1751
9. Acoustical Sealant: Nonskinning, nonhardening, permanently flexible sealant specifically designed for sealing gypsum wallboard.
10. Electrical Box Sealant: Sheet caulking
11. Tamp-in Sealants:
Oakum
Caulking cord: Fine fiber yarn saturated with wax; contains linseed oil and talcum
12. Foam Sealants: Blown with hydrocarbon or HFC-134a. Use bulk tanks and reusable dispensing guns.
13. Sill Sealer: Cushion-Foam, 100% recycled. Richter Co. (503) 282.0386.
Approved Products:
Caulk Joint Sealants: Phenoseal and Sealant by Phenoseal (800) 343.4963 http://www.phenoseal.com; Quick Shield VOC-Free Sealant, by Geocel Corporation (800) 348.7615 www.geocelusa.com; Liquid Nails Brand Super Caulk and Painter’s Caulk, by Maaco Adhesives (800) 634.0015; Poly Seamseal Products; water-based, low VOC by OSI Sealants, Inc. (800) 624.7767 http://www.osisealants.com.
Foam Joint Sealants: Touch’n Foam and Touch’n Seal lines, by Convenience Products (800) 325.6180 http://www.convenienceproducts.com; CF-128 (single component polyurethane) sold directly at the Hilti Center, Portland (800) 879.8000 http://www.us.hilti.com; 1- Component Foam (single component polyurethane) by Illbruck Sealant Systems, Inc. (800)438.0684 http://www.illbruck.com, InstaSeal EcoBlend, (low and full expanding) Foam Plus (full expanding) and Great Stuff (low expanding), by Instafoam/ Flexible Products Co. (800) 800.3626
http://greatstuff.dow.com/index.htm; and Pur Fill IG and Pur Fill IG600 (smaller size) by Todol Products (508) 651.3818 http://www.todol.com
Installation: Per manufacturer’s instructions.
Submittals: Manufacturer’s product literature.

End of 07900 Joint Sealers
copyright 2009, suzanne zuniga